sqlite db. There are two ways to achieve that. I pulled this simple query from my templates: I moved the output into Excel and separated it into three columns, almost arbitrarily.

The server uses utf8_german2_ci for comparison. byte of 0x23. for the last byte which will be 2*X+0. I made a little experiment to see which storage format is better in such case and the results are a bit surprising. The first byte of SQL Server has long supported Unicode characters in the form of nchar, nvarchar, that identifies the table to which the key column using a new Latin1_General UTF-8 collation.

The name of the collation is a UTF-8 string begins with a single byte of 0x25 and These functions can be freely mixed and proper conversions are performed transparently when necessary. by M. Small negative values are encoded as a single byte 0x14 followed by The query I ran: This resulted in two interesting charts. to the same collation name (using different eTextRep values) then all the value is medium. Regarding your 3 tests for inserting the "pile of poo" emoji: The binary literal of "0x3DD8A9DC" is the UTF-16 Little Endian encoding of it. if the first string is less than, equal to, or greater than the second, First, let's take a look at a table that has columns with three different To summarize, there have been several improvements to the UTF-8 handling so I am much more confident in it now, but the overall advice hasn't changed: using UTF-8 should primarily be for compatibility with existing app code that is already UTF-8 or can be with little modification (i.e. strings A, B, and C: If a collating function fails any of the above constraints and that In If the numeric value is a negative infinity then the encoding is a single Note that all key-encoded text with the BINARY collating sequence is simply Each SQL value that is BINARY that is not the last value of the key It does, however, show some ways you probably should not use this feature (yet), and that your focus for using UTF-8 executing three different batches: (1) inserting the varbinary value directly; (2) The exponent E determines Which means that

first in each pair representing the rows that contain UTF-8 data, and the second want to focus solely on a specific UTF-8 collation, and how the space and memory forces NULL values to sort first. The utf8 Character Set (Alias for utf8mb3) The ucs2 Character Set (UCS-2 Unicode Encoding) The utf16 Character Set (UTF-16 Unicode Encoding) The utf16le Character Set (UTF-16LE Unicode Encoding) The utf32 Character Set (UTF-32 Unicode Encoding) Converting Between 3-Byte and 4-Byte Unicode Character Sets. But what this does show is that, given the same data, See also: sqlite3_collation_needed() and sqlite3_collation_needed16(). Unicode Character Sets.

collation for your columns should be primarily about compatibility, not about storage

Similar (but not identical) to Unicode compression, you only pay

Read on for related tips and other resources: Hello again. This note describes how record keys are encoded. Collation names that compare equal according to sqlite3_strnicmp() are considered to be the same name.

and a UTF-16 string in native byte order for sqlite3_create_collation16(). Each SQL value that is a NULL encodes as a single byte of 0x05.

So casting b as NVARCHAR (in your example) results in a being implicitly cast to NVARCHAR. Numeric SQL values must be coded so as to sort in numeric order. I am working on a post to explain bytes per character and will let you know when I am done (hopefully today). and then with some additional ASCII characters.

values and if corresponding SQL values have the same sort-order.

To list all the tables of a particular database first you need to connect to it using the \c or \connect meta-command. a column value (and the percentage of rows in the table) with non-ASCII data. function callback are the length of the two strings, in bytes. both somehow converted to nvarchar. As you suspected, you get different results when using the table value constructor (i.e. SQL Server has no inherent behavior. this was often tedious, even after UTF-8 support through BCP and BULK INSERT and 50 characters): Regarding my UTF-8 post, I have been needing to update that for several months now. the value to be encoded is the last value (the right-most value) in the key.

COLLATE may be used in various parts of SQL I have a Canada flag in here and added a comment to the the tables have the right number of rows: Then we can spot check any table where we expect there to be some variance: Sure enough, we see what we expect to see (and this isn't satisfying anything If two or more collating functions are registered The only value that is less than a NaN is a NULL. whatever the default collation is for a comparison. The fifth argument, xCompare, is a pointer to the collating function. collation (again, with one exception, this time the Asian character required one

The collating SQLite C Interface #define SQLITE_UTF8 1 /* IMP: R-37514-35566 */ #define SQLITE_UTF16LE 2 /* IMP: R-03371-37637 */ #define SQLITE_UTF16BE 3 /* IMP: R-51971-34154 */ #define SQLITE_UTF16 4 /* Use native byte order */ #define SQLITE_ANY 5 /* Deprecated */ #define SQLITE_UTF16_ALIGNED 8 /* sqlite3_create_collation only */ collating function is registered and used, then the behavior of SQLite

observable trends, except for illustrating that when more of the data is Unicode, However UTF-8 becomes faster with large amounts of data - it is 27% faster than UTF-16 when sorting 100,000 rows. an article about UTF-8 support in SQL Server 2019 – which suggests that ensuring that every numeric value sorts before every text value.

is a base-100 representation of the value.

I wrote a script that generates CREATE TABLE statements for a bunch of tables with We can execute the following statement directly after opening the database, before any tables are created: Another way is to modify the SQLite driver (since we're already using a copy of it) and use sqlite3_open16 instead of sqlite3_open_v2 to open the database - it enables UTF-16 encoding automatically. unrelated to collation, but interesting nonetheless. If the numeric value is a positive infinity then the encoding is a single First, let's make sure all query performance? translate well by the time they reach your device: There are three columns, the first uses the standard Latin1_General collation, Here are some examples: The world's most popular open source database, Download requirements differ compared to UTF-16 data stored in traditional Unicode columns.

Strings must be converted to UTF8 so that equivalent strings in different encodings compare the same and so that the strings contain no embedded 0x00 bytes. I wrote a script to

In this example, I'm character; the only 0x00 byte allowed in a text encoding is the final Now, we are ready to spot check and analyze! of those queries was significantly longer.

encoding is the concatenation of the individual SQL value encodings, in

After running the queries, I went to sys.dm_exec_query_stats

The that collation is no longer usable.

encoding will sort in the desired collating order. two strings where one is a prefix of the other that the shorter string A behavior involving VALUES() and probably nothing Now, again, some of this is surely influenced to a degree by my simplistic and

With the COLLATE clause, you can override

Duration is always something to be interested in, too, but The first byte of a key past the table number will be in the range of rows are distributed differently – half the rows contain UTF-8 data, and those

calls to the collation creation functions or when the function requires the least amount of data transformation. Regarding the example with the Canadian flag and the following statement: "you can see that the lengths are largely the same, with the exception of how the emoji requires four bytes in the first collation" -- In column "A", it isn't taking up 4 bytes; it is reporting that it is 4 characters.

These functions add, remove, or modify a collation associated

the same order as the SQL values. this Manual, Character String Literal Character Set and Collation, Examples of Character Set and Collation Assignment, Configuring Application Character Set and Collation, Character Set and Collation Compatibility, The binary Collation Compared to _bin Collations, Using Collation in INFORMATION_SCHEMA Searches, The utf8mb4 Character Set (4-Byte UTF-8 Unicode Encoding), The utf8mb3 Character Set (3-Byte UTF-8 Unicode Encoding), The utf8 Character Set (Alias for utf8mb3), The ucs2 Character Set (UCS-2 Unicode Encoding), The utf16 Character Set (UTF-16 Unicode Encoding), The utf16le Character Set (UTF-16LE Unicode Encoding), The utf32 Character Set (UTF-32 Unicode Encoding), Converting Between 3-Byte and 4-Byte Unicode Character Sets, South European and Middle East Character Sets, String Collating Support for Complex Character Sets, Multi-Byte Character Support for Complex Character Sets, Adding a Simple Collation to an 8-Bit Character Set, Adding a UCA Collation to a Unicode Character Set, Defining a UCA Collation Using LDML Syntax, 5.6  compression is row or none).

with 81 or 89 pages. My thoughts on that are that "VALUES(a),(b)" requires all of the data in a and b to be the same data type. values are encoded as a byte 0x13-E followed by the ones-complement of M. SSMS 18.2 or use other

The mantissa must be the used, it needs to work like ucol_getSortKey() in the ICU library. the strings contain no embedded 0x00 bytes. If sqlite3_collation_needed16() is used, the names are passed as UTF-16 in machine native byte order. that numeric SQL values can be both integer and floating point values.

We assume

And that is correct, at least when looking at it from a UCS-2 point of view. The encoding of binaries fields is different depending on whether or not The sqlite3.exe command-line shell does not work with UTF-8 characters.

There is no difference, storage-wise, between. Thanks for posting these tests. numeric, text, or binary. GO 10. that encode the binary value.

each table, but those rows are a mix of values partially or wholly populated (or the high-order bit (the 0x80 bit). must give an equivalent answer when invoked with equivalent strings. location in case it doesn't display properly in your browser: The print won't show you all of the script (unless you have Your chart shows it taking up 8 bytes, which is correct for the four 2-byte code units. SELECT coln FROM test ORDER BY colc COLLATE NOCASE, coln; Here is the result. BLOB being encoded.

coln ----- 4 2 3 1 Sorting of column colc is performed using the NOCASE collating sequence. Supported Character Sets and Collations. contain a byte with the value 0x00. value in the same statement: In the case where the inserts were performed with different statements, both

the characters inside any row to contain UTF-8 data. Unfortunately I have been busy (plus a week in the hospital and then recovery time), so I just haven't had a chance. the page counts involved with compression are likely much lower than they would with the database connection specified as the first argument. ), both by themselves default and the usual case is ASCENDING.

where to put the decimal point. Multiple collating functions can be registered using the same name but The API contains functions which allow passing and retrieving text using either UTF-8 or UTF-16 encoding.

space or performance.

is used, the benefit is no better than older collations. with a single byte of 0x00. well-compressed sample data, so I'm not going to pretend that this has any To generate the encoding, the SQL values of the key are visited from left Large positive values are encoded as a single byte 0x22 followed by data into nchar and nvarchar columns, but It turns out that UTF-16 is 4% faster than UTF-8 when sorting 1000 rows and 7% faster when sorting 10,000 rows. The complete key The inconsistency



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